New York State Driver's License: A Step-by-Step 2018 Guide

Learn what to expect and how to get behind the wheel faster.
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On this page: Types of licenses How to apply Knowledge test Road test Replace or renew New residents

How Does It Work?

If you are a New York State driver or want to become one, follow this guide, which will save you a considerable amount of time and effort.

Get an instructional permit

Allows you to practice driving under supervision.

Get a provisional license

Allows you to drive unsupervised with restrictions.

Get a Full (Adult) License

Allows you to drive with no restrictions.

Types of Driver's Licenses in New York

For each license type there's a corresponding type of instruction permit
New York Class D Driver's License
Class D
Operator or DJ ( Junior Operator) is the usual kind of driver license. It allows you to operate a vehicle for personal use with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 26,000 pounds or less that tows another vehicle that has a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or more, but the GCWR of the two vehicles together must be 26,000 lbs. or less. Read the NY DMV Driver’s Manual or take a free NY DMV practice test.
New York Class E Driver's License
Class E
It allows you to drive taxis, limousines or other livery vehicles for hire that carry no more than 14 passengers. Read the NY DMV Driver’s Manual or take a free NY DMV practice test.
New York Class A/B/C Driver's License
A/B/C (Commercial)
Class A allows you to operate most single unit vehicles and vehicle combinations up to legal weight limits depending on your endorsement. Classes B and C allow you to operate most single unit vehicles that a Class E driver can drive plus buses and trucks that have a GVWR of 26,001 pounds or more depending on endorsements and restrictions ( Class B) or 26,000 pounds and less depending on endorsements and restrictions ( Class C). Read the NY CDL Manual or take a free CDL practice test.
New York Motorcycle Driver's License
Class M
It allows you to operate a motorcycle. Class MJ driver license allows to operate a motorcycle with some restrictions if you are older than 16 and younger than 18 years of age. Take a free NY DMV motorcycle practice test.

How to Apply for Your Non-Commercial Driver’s License

To apply for a class D driver license you must first get a learner permit, take a driver education course and a road test. This is your complete plan of action depending on your age:
Apply for Learner's License I'm over 16 and under 18 (First Timer)
Apply for a Class 'D - Operator' junior permit
How to Start
Apply for Full (Adult) License 18+ I'm 18+ (First timer)
Apply for a senior (adult) driver license
How to Start

How to Apply for Your Junior Learner Permit

The first step for every new driver is getting a Class D- operator permit. It allows you to drive supervised with a number of restrictions. It is very important that you understand the Graduated Driver License (GDL) Law that adds extra restrictions for junior permit holders.

1APPLY IN PERSON

You must apply in person at a DMV office. You don’t have to make an appointment; however, you may make a reservation online in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Onondaga or Albany Counties. To locate a nearby DMV office, use this map.

2BRING THE DOCUMENTATION TO VERIFY THE FOLLOWING:

  • date of birth
  • social security status
  • NY residence
  • identification

Complete this guide to select your documents correctly.

3CHOOSE THE TYPE OF DOCUMENT TO APPLY FOR

You can choose to apply for an Enhanced permit, a REAL ID permit, or a Standard permit. An Enhanced permit will let you cross Mexican and Canadian border without a passport provided that you are a US citizen. Both an Enhanced and REAL ID can be used to board a flight within the US and enter federal buildings. Standard permit holders will need a second form of ID to board the plane after October 1, 2020. You can answer these questions to decide which type of permit is more suitable for your needs.

4COMPLETE THE APPLICATION FORM

The forms are available at the DMV office or you can fill it in and print at home. Download this form if you apply for a Standard permit, while this form is for an Enhanced or REAL ID permit.

5BRING YOUR PARENT OR GUARDIAN

Your parent or guardian must complete the Statement of Identity and/or Residence (MV45) in front of a DMV representative if you can’t provide 2 documents to prove your identity or residence. Your parent must bring their NY State license or ID with current address.

6PAY THE FEE

The fee you pay depends primarily on your age.

  • 16- 16 ½ year olds pay $80.00
  • 16 ½- 17 year olds pay $76.75
  • 17-17 ½ year olds pay $92.50
  • 17 ½-18 year olds pay $89.25

Residents of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island), Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk and Westchester must also pay a Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District (MCTD) fee. The MCTD fee is $1.00 for every 6 months the permit will be valid.

There is an additional $30.00 fee for an Enhanced Driver Permit.

7PASS THE VISION TEST

To pass the vision test, you must have 20/40 vision in at least one eye with or without corrective lenses. If you cannot pass this test or if you wear special lenses, contact a DMV Call Center for additional instruction.

8TAKE THE WRITTEN TEST

You are asked to take the written test on the same day. If you fail, you can retake it at no additional cost. Your permit will come in the mail within 2 weeks. Once you get your permit, you can start practicing supervised driving. Alternatively, you can take the written test through the DMV Online Knowledge Test Application (OKTA) program. The test is given at participating high schools across New York State. Students who pass the test online will bring a receipt to a DMV office while applying for the permit.

Learner permit restrictions: You may not drive unless accompanied by a supervising driver age 21 or older with valid license. You may not drive on any street within a park in New York City, on any bridge or tunnel under the jurisdiction of the Tri-borough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, on the Cross County, Hutchinson River, Saw Mill River, or Taconic State parkways in Westchester County and in a DMV road test area.

Moreover, The Graduated License Law adds more restrictions on junior permit holders, which depend upon where and when you will be driving in New York State. Check your area additional restrictions here.

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How to Apply for a Junior Driver License

DJ- Junior Operator driver license will give you more driving privileges that vary considerably in Upstate New York, New York City and Long Island due to the Graduated License Law.

Junior license restrictions: You cannot drive within the five boroughs of New York City under any circumstances until you receive your adult license. You may drive in Nassau and Suffolk counties without a supervising driver only between your home and the place of study or employment. In upstate New York you may drive without a supervising driver only between 5 AM and 9 PM and only directly between your home and your place of study or employment between 9 PM and 5 AM. There are more specific restrictions in each area.

  1. PRACTISE DRIVING

    You must drive at least 50 hours with supervision, which includes 15 hours after sunset and at least 10 hours in moderate to heavy traffic. Have you parent or guardian complete a Certification of Supervised Driving (MV-262).

  2. TAKE A DRIVER EDUCATION COURSE

    You can complete either a high school or college driver education course and receive a Driver Education Certificate (MV-285) (valid for 2 years), or a 5-hour Pre-licensing Course at a driving school and get a Pre-licensing Course Certificate (MV-278) (valid for one year). You must bring the original certificate to your road test to turn in to the examiner. If your certificate expires, you must complete the course again. Remember that the certificate must be valid on the date that you make your Road Test appointment but can be expired on the date you take your road test.

  3. SCHEDULE YOUR ROAD TEST

    You can schedule your road test after at least 6 months from the date you received your junior learner permit but before your permit expires. You do not need to take your test in the area of the state where you live. To get the earliest appointment possible, be sure to check multiple locations. Schedule online or by phone: 1-518-402-2100.

  4. PASS YOUR ROAD TEST

    You should arrive at least 30 minutes before your appointment and bring you learner permit, glasses or contacts (if your permit states you need corrective lenses), your original Pre-licensing Course or Driver Education Certificate (copies are not acceptable), a Certification of Supervised Driving (must be given to the examiner each time you take a road test) and a vehicle to drive during the test. If you pass your test, the examiner will give you an interim license that allows you to drive. Keep the interim license with your photo learner permit. Your new license will arrive in the mail in about 2 weeks.

    If you do not pass your test twice, you must pay the $10.00 fee for up to two more tests.

How to Remove Your Junior License restrictions at the age of 17?

If you are 17, you are eligible for a senior driver license if you have a junior driver license and have completed a state-approved high school or college driver education course. To change your junior license to a senior license, bring your junior license and the Student Certificate of Completion (MV-285) to any DMV office. If you do not change your junior license to a senior license, the junior drivers’ restrictions will apply until you are 18, even if you carry the completion certificate with you. You can also give your certificate with your junior permit to the license examiner at your road test. You will automatically receive a senior license when you become eligible.

How to Apply for a Class D-Operator (Adult) Driver License

Your first New York State driver license will be issued for a period not to exceed 5 years, on your month and day of birth. Before you get a license, you must apply for a learner permit regardless of your age and practice supervised driving.

1APPLY IN PERSON FOR A LEARNER PERMIT

You must apply in person at a DMV office. You don’t have to make an appointment; however, you may make a reservation online in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Onondaga or Albany Counties. To locate a nearby DMV office, use this map.

2BRING THE DOCUMENTATION TO VERIFY THE FOLLOWING:

  • date of birth
  • social security status
  • NY residence
  • identification

Complete this guide to select your documents correctly.

3CHOOSE THE TYPE OF DOCUMENT TO APPLY FOR

You can choose to apply for an Enhanced, a REAL ID, or a Standard document. An Enhanced license will let you cross Mexican and Canadian border without a passport provided that you are a US citizen. Both an Enhanced and REAL ID can be used to board a flight within the US and enter federal buildings. Standard document holders will need a second form of ID to board the plane after October 1, 2020. You can answer these questions to decide which type of permit/license is more suitable for your needs.

4COMPLETE THE APPLICATION FORM

The forms are available at the DMV office or you can fill it in and print at home. Download this form if you apply for a Standard license, while this form is for an Enhanced or REAL ID permit or license.

5CALCULATE AND PAY THE FEE

The fee you pay depends primarily on your age.

  • 18- 18 ½ year olds pay $80.00
  • 18 ½- 21 year olds pay $76.75- $80.00
  • 21+ year olds pay $ 64.25- $67.50

Residents of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island), Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk and Westchester must also pay a Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District (MCTD) fee. The MCTD fee is $1.00 for every 6 months the license will be valid.

There is an additional $30.00 fee for an Enhanced Driver License.

6PASS THE VISION TEST

To pass the vision test, you must have 20/40 vision in at least one eye with or without corrective lenses. If you cannot pass this test or if you wear special lenses, contact a DMV Call Center for additional instruction.

7TAKE THE WRITTEN TEST

You are asked to take the written test on the same day. If you fail, you can retake it at no additional cost.

8RECEIVE THE PERMIT

Follow learner permit restrictions: you may not drive unless accompanied by a supervising driver age 21 or older with valid license. You may not drive on any street within a park in New York City, on any bridge or tunnel under the jurisdiction of the Tri-borough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, on the Cross County, Hutchinson River, Saw Mill River, or Taconic State parkways in Westchester County and in a DMV road test area.

9PRACTISE DRIVING

You should get a good amount of supervised driving. It is recommended to drive at least 50 hours with supervision, which includes 15 hours after sunset and at least 10 hours in moderate to heavy traffic.

10TAKE A PRE-LICENSING COURSE

You can complete either a high school or college driver education course and receive a Driver Education Certificate (MV-285) (valid for 2 years), or a 5-hour Pre-licensing Course at a driving school and get a Pre-licensing Course Certificate (MV-278) (valid for one year). You must bring the original certificate to your road test to turn in to the examiner. If your certificate expires, you must complete the course again. Remember that the certificate must be valid on the date that you make your Road Test appointment but can be expired on the date you take your road test.

11SCHEDULE YOUR ROAD TEST

You must schedule your road test before your learner permit expires. You do not need to take your test in the area of the state where you live. To get the earliest appointment possible, be sure to check multiple locations. Schedule online or by phone: 1-518-402-2100.

12PASS YOUR ROAD TEST

You should arrive at least 30 minutes before your appointment and bring you learner permit, glasses or contacts (if your permit indicates you need corrective lenses), your original Pre-licensing Course or Driver Education Certificate (copies are not acceptable), and a vehicle to drive during the test. If you pass your test, the examiner will give you an interim license that allows you to drive. Keep the interim license with your photo learner permit. Your new license will arrive in the mail in about 2 weeks.

If you do not pass your test twice, you must pay the $10.00 fee for up to two more tests.

New York State Written Test

You will take the written exam at a DMV office on the same day when you apply for your permit/license. You don’t have to make an appointment; however, you may make a reservation online in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Onondaga or Albany Counties. To locate a nearby DMV office, use this map.
Take a free practice test
What does the exam include?
You’ll have 20 multiple-choice questions testing your knowledge of road signs, rules of the road, and safe driving laws including the laws about alcohol and drug use while driving. To pass the knowledge portion of the DMV driving test, you must answer 14 questions correctly, including at least two of four questions on road signs.
Can I take the test in any other language but English?
Yes, the test is offered in 14 languages: English, Albanian, Arabic, Bosnian, Chinese, French, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Russian and Spanish.
How to prepare for the test?
Study the NYS Driver’s Manual as all questions are based on the information provided in chapter 4 through 11. Take free practice tests available here. When you feel comfortable with your score, you are ready!
What common mistakes should I avoid?
The most common mistake comes from not knowing enough information out of the manual. This happens when people study solely with practice tests. Make sure you read the manual first. Another problem is rushing through questions. Take your time and remember what you have studied.
What happens if I fail?
If you fail you can retake it at no additional cost.
Can I take the written test at my high school?
Yes, before you apply for a learner permit, you can take the written test through the DMV Online Knowledge Test Application (OKTA) program. The test is given at participating high schools across New York State. Students who fail the test can take it again online as many times as the school allows.

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Road Test

Step-by-Step Guide
What to expect during NYS road test
You must schedule your road test before your learner permit expires. You do not need to take your test in the area of the state where you live. To get the earliest appointment possible, be sure to check multiple locations. Schedule online or by phone: 1-518-402-2100. You will need a valid New York State learner permit, an original, unexpired Pre-Licensing Course Certificate or a Driver Education Certificate, and the zip code for the test site. Your test can be cancelled or relocated due to adverse weather or road construction, see cancellations, closings and delays, or call 1-518-402-2100.
Before the test
  1. Arrive up to 30 minutes before your appointment. If you are late, the examiner may need to reschedule.
  2. Bring the vehicle with the following:
    • a valid registration and inspection
    • functional seat belts
    • headlights
    • windshield wipers
    • a front passenger area and seatbelt free of trash, clutter or debris that might damage the license examiner’s uniform
    • a front passenger door that opens from the inside of the vehicle
  3. Bring the following:
    • your photo learner permit
    • a driver age 21 or older with a valid license
    • glasses or contacts, if your permit indicates you need corrective lenses
    • your original Pre-licensing Course Certificate (MV-278) or Driver Education Certificate (MV-285), copies are not acceptable
    • if you are under 18, a Certification of Supervised Driving (MV-262) completed by your parent or guardian - this must be given to the examiner each time you take a road test
During the test

The test usually takes about 15 minutes. Listen to the examiner and follow the instructions.

You will be demonstrating the following skills:

  • Parallel parking
  • Smooth steering and acceleration
  • Braking well before your stopping position to avoid abrupt stops, stop your vehicle in the proper position of the lane
  • Choosing the correct gear at the right time for both an automatic or a manual transmission
  • Obeying speed limits and adjusting your speed to weather and road conditions
  • Following distance: using the "two second rule"
  • Obeying traffic signs, signals and markings
  • Showing the correct stopping position: if a stop is required, stop before reaching an intersecting street. If stop lines or crosswalks are present, stop before crossing them. If your view is blocked after stopping behind the crosswalk, move up until you can clearly see your way, then stop again if necessary
  • Keeping your vehicle in the proper traffic lane, especially when preparing to make turns
  • Using your directional signals or horn consistently and at the proper times
  • Identifying potential hazards by checking mirrors, looking behind your shoulder when changing lanes and backing up
  • Anticipating other drivers’ mistakes and reacting appropriately
After the test

    If you pass the test, the license examiner will give you an interim license that allows you to drive. Keep the interim license with your photo learner permit till your license arrives in the mail.

    If you fail your test, your learner permit remains valid until the expiration date. If your learner permit expires before your next road test, you must get a new learner permit. You can schedule another road test, but you must pay additional fees if you failed your first two road tests. You will need to wait at least one day to take the test again, but usually, the earliest date is within three to five weeks (10 weeks during school breaks).

How to Replace or Renew Your Driver License in New York

  • You must renew your license in person at a DMV office in the following cases:

    1. You want to convert to a REAL ID or Enhanced (complete this guide to make sure you have the proofs of identification needed for these types of licenses). If your current license was issued before October 30, 2017 and is not Enhanced, you have a Standard document. An Enhanced license will let you cross Mexican and Canadian border without a passport provided that you are a US citizen. Both an Enhanced and REAL ID can be used to board a flight within the US and enter federal buildings. Standard license holders will need a second form of ID to board the plane after October 1, 2020. You can answer these questions to decide which type of document is more suitable for your needs.
    2. You have a conditional or restricted license
    3. You have the words "VALID WITHOUT PHOTO” on your license
    4. You want to update your photo
    5. You participate in the ignition interlock device program
    6. You have 'TEMPORARY VISITOR' on your license and the temporary visitor date expired (bring proof of an extension from the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

    To renew in an office and keep your current document type, follow these steps:

    1. Complete the renewal notice (MV-2) that you received by mail. If you did not receive a notice, use either an Application for Enhanced or REAL ID Permit, Driver License or Non-Driver ID Card (MV-44EDL) or Application for Standard Permit, Driver License or Non-Driver ID Card (MV-44).
    2. Bring your renewal notice or application and your current license to a DMV office, you don’t have to make an appointment; however, you may make a reservation online in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Onondaga or Albany Counties. To locate a nearby DMV office, use this map.
    3. Take a vision test at the DMV or bring a completed Vision Test Report(MV-619) or have your test sent to the DMV electronically by a vision registry provider.
    4. Pay a fee by card, check or money order. The fee is $64.50, but if you are a resident of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island); Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk or Westchester, you will have to add $16.00 for an 8 year license. Add extra $30.00 to get an Enhanced license.
    5. Get a temporary, non-photo license to use until your new license arrives in the mail (in about 10 business days).

    Tip! You must renew your license before it expires, or you could face fines. You can renew your license up to 1 year before it expires. If you don’t renew the license 2 years after the expiration date, you will have to start the process of getting a new license as if you never had one.

  • If you renew by mail and do not already have an Enhanced or REAL ID, your document will have 'NOT FOR FEDERAL PURPOSES' written on it.

    Complete and send the following:

    1. the renewal notice you received by mail or use Application for Enhanced or REAL ID Permit, Driver License or Non-Driver ID Card(MV-44EDL) or Application for Standard Permit, Driver License or Non-Driver ID Card (MV-44)
    2. a Vision Test Report(MV-619) - or get tested by an approved vision registry provider.
    3. a check or money order payable to ‘Commissioner of Motor Vehicles’. The fee is $64.50, but if you are a resident of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island); Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk or Westchester, you will have to add $16.00 for an 8 year license. Add extra $30.00 if you have an Enhanced license.

    Mail to:

    NYS Department of Motor Vehicles
    207 Genesee Street, Suite 6
    Utica, NY 13501-2874

    Tip! You must renew your license before it expires, or you could face fines. You can renew your license up to 1 year before it expires. If you don’t renew the license 2 years after the expiration date, you will have to start the process of getting a new license as if you never had one.

  • If you renew online and do not already have an Enhanced or REAL ID, your document will have 'NOT FOR FEDERAL PURPOSES' written on it.

    1. Pass a vision test at an approved vision registry provider. You can have a Vision Test Report(MV-619) completed by a physician, physician's assistant, ophthalmologist, optometrist, optician, registered nurse or nurse professional. Then enter the report information on the online transaction.
    2. Renew online.
    3. Pay a fee by debit/credit card. The fee is $64.50, but if you are a resident of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island); Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk or Westchester, you will have to add $16.00 for an 8 year license. Add extra $30.00 to get an Enhanced license.
    4. Download and print a temporary license in PDF format to use until your new license arrives in the mail (in about 10 business days).

    Tip! You must renew your license before it expires, or you could face fines. You can renew your license up to 1 year before it expires. If you don’t renew the license 2 years after the expiration date, you will have to start the process of getting a new license as if you never had one.

    If you are turning 21 soon and renew more than 40 days before your 21st birthday, your license will have 'UNDER 21’ on it, but if your renewal is processed less than 40 days before your birthday, you won’t have this note on your license.

New Residents: How to Get a New York State Driver's License

If you become a New York State resident, you must apply for a New York State driver license within 30 days of becoming a resident.
Out-of-state license Foreign license
Not sure if you are a resident of New York?
Are you a New York resident?

The NYS Vehicle and Traffic Law says the term "resident" means domiciliary, that is, one who lives in this state with the intention of making it a fixed and permanent abode.

If you live in a house, a home, an apartment, a room or other similar place in New York State for 90 days, it is considered "presumptive evidence" that you are a resident of New York State. However, students from other states or countries who attend school in New York State are usually not considered residents of New York, so they don’t have to exchange their license.

I’ve Got a Valid Out-of-State or Canadian Province License

Moving from another US state or Canada? Welcome to New York!
Moving from another state?

Your out-of-state or Canadian license must have your photograph, be valid or expired less than 24 months ago and issued at least 6 months before you apply for a New York license. If your out-of-state photo driver license does not show the date it was issued, get a certified driver license record from the state that issued the license that indicates the date of issue.

You cannot exchange your license if it is

  • suspended or revoked. You must first remove the suspension or revocation
  • lost or stolen. First apply for a replacement in your previous state of residence
  • hardship or an "employment only driver license"
  • marked "non-renewable" or "non-transferable"

Your New York license will be valid for 5 years.

Plan of Action
  1. Apply in person. You don’t have to make an appointment; however, you may make a reservation online in New York City, Westchester, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Onondaga or Albany Counties. To locate a nearby DMV office, use this map.
  2. Choose the type of document to apply for. You can choose to apply for an Enhanced, a REAL ID or a Standard license. An Enhanced license will let you cross Mexican and Canadian border without a passport provided that you are a US citizen. Both an Enhanced and REAL ID can be used to board a flight within the US and enter federal buildings. Standard license holders will need a second form of ID to board the plane after October 1, 2020. You can answer these questions to decide which type of permit is more suitable for your needs.
  3. Pass a vision test at the DMV or bring a completed Eye Test Report (MV-619).
  4. Bring proof of identity. Check here if you have all the necessary documentation.
  5. Pay the fee. It is $65.00, but if you are a resident of Bronx, Kings (Brooklyn), New York (Manhattan), Queens, Richmond (Staten Island); Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk or Westchester, your fee is $75.00. Add extra $30.00 if you are getting an Enhanced license. You can pay by cash, card, check or money order.
  6. Surrender your out-of-state license.

Tip! You cannot exchange out-of-state permit for a New York State permit.

driver's license in New York

You will get a temporary non-photo license document. Allow 2 weeks for your new license to arrive in the mail.

I've Got a Valid Foreign License

Moving from another country? Welcome to New York!

If you have a driver license from another country except Canada, you should only apply for a New York State driver license if you become a resident of New York State or if you do not have a driver license from your home country.

If you become a resident of NYS, you must pass a written test, complete a 5-hour pre-licensing course and pass a road test. See the complete guide how to apply for your NYS driver license.

When you pass your road test, you must surrender your foreign driver license to the DMV road test examiner. The local DMV office will destroy your foreign driver license after 60 days. If you plan to return to your home country and will need your foreign driver license, ask the road test examiner how to make sure that your foreign driver license is not destroyed.

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